Actual Tasks of Sociological Diagnostics (on the Example of “Wartime Essays” by K. Manheim)

Introduction. The article analyzes the current possibilities of diagnosing the society of wartime, based on the subject content and methods of sociology, as a non-trivial task for sociologists-teachers of higher education. Methodology and sources. The theoretical sources of the research were the works of classics of sociology (O. Comte, K. Marx, E. Fromm, K. Manheim) and modern Russian sociologists (M.K. Gorshkov, S.A. Kravchenko, J.T. Toschenko, V.Y. Fetisov), who defined the tasks of sociological diagnostics. The "Diagnosis of Our Time" by K. Manheim is analyzed as a historical example of their formulation. The empirical base was made up of official documents of the Russian Federation, the results of VTSIOM surveys, materials of public discussions in the Russian media, expert assessments and examples of analysis of the dynamics of civil society in the conditions of SVO. The methodology of socio-cultural analysis, social constructivism, typological method is used as a specific research strategy that allows to formulate complex value judgments. Results and discussion. Based on the experience of K. Manheim, the article discusses the current possibilities of sociological diagnostics based on the essential characteristics of society. In contrast to technocratic approaches, it is argued that sociological rationalism is not reduced to scientific and experimental. He includes the problems of natural law as his methodological principle in the analysis of social dynamics. On this basis, the tasks of sociological diagnostics are formulated: the study of the assessment process as a factor of social change reproducing the “crisis of assessments”. Its mechanisms are considered, – transfer, transformation, replacement with non–traditional equivalents, creation of new values, and ways of justification, – utilitarian justification, faith in the leader, class, racial and ethnic community. It is shown that a holistic understanding of shifts in the evaluation system is achieved by constructing ideal-typical concepts based on the axiological consciousness of the researcher. A research strategy of sociological diagnostics is outlined: collecting samples, models of self-determination in wartime conditions and their public discourse. The practical application of sociological knowledge is associated with the creation of value-probabilistic scenarios for the development of society as incentives for socio-economic and political transformations. Conclusion. The sociological diagnosis of wartime society requires the construction of conceptual ideas that collect images of the future that meet the priorities of security, personal freedoms and innovation. The idea of a “gathering”, ideally a conciliar democracy, seems very promising.

Authors: Alexandra V. Shcherbina

Direction: Sociology

Keywords: sociological diagnostics, social technologies, values, crisis of assessments, natural law, ideal-typical constructions, behavioral models, images of the future

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