Some Philosophical Problems of Studying Complex Systems in the Universe
Introduction. The paper deals with the philosophical problems of functioning of the most complex phenomena in the universe: creation of the universe, emergence of life and appearance of consciousness. The scientific timeliness of the research is determined by that unceasing interest to the origin of the universe and life in it. The most difficult problem is the origin of intelligence in the universe which is confirmed through the ongoing research in the SETI program. The scientific novelty of research is that the authors link three fundamental problems relates to the origins of complexity in the universe in a single intellectual cluster. Methodology and sources. The analysis is based on the issues in modern cosmology, astrobiology and anthropology treated in the context of complex systems and their radical sensitivity to the uncontrolled initial conditions. In particular, one implies the so called “fine-tuning” of the cosmological parameters necessary for the origin of life on the planet Earth. The hypothetical deviation of the numerical values of such parameters by, let say some per cents, would exclude the development of the biological systems. However the sphere of the necessary conditions for these parameters does not guarantee the fulfillment of the sufficient conditions for creation complexity and a possibility of life. Such conditions are not determined by the physical and biological context and make inevitable an appeal for their interpretation to philosophical ideas. The methodological foundation of this research is based in finding the boundaries of efficiency of the necessary conditions for emergence of complexity and attempts to provide in some cases an interpretation of the possible sufficient conditions. Results and discussion. It is shown that it is impossible to account on scientific grounds for the original conditions which launched creation of the universe, emergence of life and appearance of consciousness. Scientifically, one can formulate the necessary conditions for existence of life in the universe and hence the embodied consciousness, however it is beyond the reach of science to account for the sufficient conditions. One simple model of origin of life illustrating the dependence of its phenomenon on the uncontrolled sufficient conditions is proposed on the grounds of analogy with Bernard’s instability in complex systems. If one identifies such phenomena as existence of the universe, biological and intelligent life with the behavior in super-complex material systems, there still remains a fundamental problem in unpredictability and contingency of those “initial” conditions which predetermined the factual outcomes in evolution of these complex systems. In other words science faces a fundamental limitedness in describing the sufficient conditions (sufficient reason) for those forms of complexity in nature with which this article deals. Conclusion. A scientific description of the most complex phenomena such as the universe as a whole, biological and intelligent life demonstrate its limited scope as regards the sufficient conditions for their happening. In this sense an exhaustive understanding of these phenomena becomes fundamentally impossible, showing that science functions in the conditions of the positive uncertainty.
Авторы: Nesteruk A. V., Soldatov A. V.
Ключевые слова: complexity, consciousness, humanity, nature, persons, philosophy, scientific method, universe
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